Human Nutrition: Diseases


Our Biology teacher, Magdalena Ravagnan, asked us to analyse and investigate in depth some of the diseases caused by malnutrition. This is a topic that we have been seeing in class and this happens when you don’t have a balanced diet, between other reasons. To learn further information about how to mantain a healthy nutrition visit Male’s post here.

 

Bulimia

What is it?

 In this disease people eat in excess and then have a feeling of discomfort and guilt so they compensate it in extreme ways. Generally they throw up or exercise in an extreme and aggressive way. It can also lead to compulsive ways.

 

Symptoms

  • Inability to stop eating
  • Eating until the point of physical discomfort and pain

 

Causes

          – You are born with it

          – You learn it from people around you and people who are famous

          – Unhappiness at home or at school.

 

Anorexia

What is it?

 With this disease people have a real fear of weight gain and a distorted view of their bodies. As a result, they eat little to nothing and become dangerously underweight.

 

Symptoms

  • Extremely thin
  • Lack of calcium, bones break easily

 

Causes

  • Genetic: Their families also suffered it
  • Biochemistry: Change of mood and emotions
  • Psychology: Mostly people who are perfectionist, impulse and feels hopeless

 

Rochi, Jose, Lucy and Epi

 

Coronary Heart Disease

Causes

Excess of saturated fats and cholesterol, which causes fat deposits to build up in the arteries leaving little or no room for blood to get through.

Factors hat increase the risk of coronary heart disease:

Smoking cigarettes as several of its component cause damage to the circulatory system. It is the single most important thing to reduce the chances of CHD.

Diet _ as stated before _ diet high in salt, saturated fats or cholesterol increase the chances of getting this disease.

Obesity since being very overweight increase the risk.

Stress because although some stress is necessary, unmanagable or long term stress will increase risk of developing heart disease.

Genes as it could be hereditary. If several people in your family haver it, it is likely you have this genes, therefore making it more probable that you’ll get coronary heart disease. Although there isn’t much you can do about this, you can try hard to reduce the other risk factors by having a healthy lifestyle.

 

Symptoms/Signs

angina, heart attack, heart failure, arrhythmia.

 

TREATMENT

 Prescription of drugs to lower blood pressure, surgery to replace the damaged coronary artery with a blood vessel (coronary bypass operation), insertion of a little mesh tube inside the artery to keep it open, insertion of a tiny balloon into the collapsed artery to push it open (angioplasty).

 

Prevention

 There is no way of preventing it, but the risk can be reduced by

  • Not smoking
  • Avoiding stress
  • Eating a wide variety of food (balanced diet)
  • Keeping your body weight at a suitable level
  • Doing exercise

 

Which are the factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease?

 

Mara, Luli, Luz & Flor

 

Kwashiorkor

Definition

 A disease often caused by poverty. The lack of high-protein foods and vitamins a child needs to grow. Also caused due to the lack of knowing what consists of a well balanced diet.

Children from 9 months to 9 years old.

 

Prevention

The best way to avoid this disease, is to eat a nutritious and balanced diet which includes fats, carbohydrates and proteins

 

Symptoms

  • Change in skin and hair color(reddish-orange)
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Edema (swelling)
  • Damaged immune system
  • Irritability
  • Flaky rash
  • Large Belly that sticks out
  • Shock

 

Treatment: there are two high-protein diets. One based on animal protein, the other on plant protein. It’s reversible.

 

Cata, Catu and Delfi

Marasmus

Sickness present in children. Type of malnutrition that consists of muscle and fat loss, changes in body temperature, diarrhea, fatigue and dizziness.

 

This sickness is caused by low consumption of nutrients, proteins and calories.

 

The symptoms are chronic muscle waste, body weight much lower, dry skin and the child looks emaciated.

 

Luna, Fran, Agos, Tomi

 

Obesity

 

It’s a disease which describes people who take more energy than they use and have excessive body fat.

 

Consequences

  • Heart disease
  • Strokes
  • Diabetes
  • The excessive body weight causes problems with the joints and the knees since they’re the ones who have to carry the rest of the body.

 

Treatment

It can be controlled by well balanced meals and regular exercises.
Delfi S, Gon, Agustín, Juan and Tomi A

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